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자원순환공학 사업장폐기물의 처리 및 자원화


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자원순환공학 사업장폐기물의 처리 및 자원화

배재근, 김종환, 김정대 저 | 아진

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2020-07-13
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콘텐츠 소개
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한줄서평

콘텐츠 소개

최근에 자원의 유한성에 대하여 큰 문제를 해결하기 위하여 자원화 개발이 활발히 이루어
지고 있으며, 그중에서도 가장 수월하게 접근이 가능한 사업장폐기물처리에 대한 관심이 급
증하고 있다.
선진국 등에서는 할당되어진 의무감축량을 준수하기 위하여 많은 노력을 하고 있으며, 특
히 폐기물처리로부터 에너지를 회수하기 위하여 정책 및 기술을 개발하고 있으며, 실제 각종
정책적인 지원을 통하여 많은 효과를 창출하고 있다.
기존의 화석연료와의 경쟁관계속에서 기술개발 및 실제 적용을 가속화시키기 위하여 다양
한 제도를 실시하고 있으며, 독일 등의 선진국에서 고정가격매입제도, 우리나라에서는 RPS
제도 등을 실시하고 있다. 이러한 제도에 의하여 독일 등은 폐기물시설이 8,000개소 설치되
고 있으며, 생성된 에너지를 이용하여 전력을 생산하여, 탈원자력을 위한 신재생에너지 산업
이 활성화되고 있다.
우리나라도 2008년말에 "사업장폐기물의처리 종합대책"을 수립하여 가연성 폐기물로부터
에너지회수를 위하여 권역별 에너지타운을 조성하고 있으며, 유기성폐자원으로부터 에너지회
수를 위하여 폐기물가스화시설을 설치하고 있다.
생활폐기물의 고형연료화사업, 음식물류 폐기물의 바이오가스화 사업, 하수슬러지의 고형
연료화사업, 가축분뇨의 바이오가스화 사업, 저탄소녹색마을 조성사업 등이 진행되고 있으며,
이들 사업에 다양한 형태로 기술이 적용되고 있으나, 아직까지 많은 문제를 야기시키고 있는
실정이며, 투자대비 가치회수가 진행되지 못하고 있는 것으로 국회 보고서 등에서 지적하고
있다. 실제 현장에서 일어나는 문제의 근본원인은 초기 설계단계에서 심도있는 검토, 경험이
부족한 것이며, 또한 현장에 시설을 설치하고, 운영하는 과정에서 전문성이 있는 기술자의
부족에 있다.
외국에서 첨단기술을 도입하는 것만으로 기술습득이 되었다고 대부분 판단하고 있으나, 이
들 기술을 해석하고, 이들 기술을 이해하여 설계하고 운영하는 인재가 필요하다.
본 도서는 대학 및 대학원에서 자원공학에서 사업장폐기물의 처리 및 자원화에 대하여 관
심을 가지고 학생, 관련 사업장에서 일을 하고 있는 기취업자, 동 사업에 진출하려는 사업자
에게 사전에 필요한 일반지식을 함양하기 위한 목적으로 집필하였다. 본 도서는 에너지화의
배경 및 필요성, 국내외 정책동향, 발생 및 처리현황, 기술현황, 적용사례 등으로 구분하여
서술하였다. 본 도서가 우리나라 폐기물처리 및 자원화 기술발전, 산업의 발전에 기여하는
촉매의 역할을 해 줄 것으로 기대한다.

목차

제 1 장 폐기물관리법, 분류 및 관리체계 ·························································· 11.1 폐기물의 관련법 체계 및 종류 ····························································································· 3
1.2 폐기물관련 용어 및 정의 ···································································································· 25
1.3 폐기물의 관리체계 ··············································································································· 43
제 2 장 사업장 폐기물처리 및 자원화 기본계획 ············································· 53
2.1 폐기물처리 기본계획 ··········································································································· 54
2.2 사업장폐기물의 조사 및 예측 ····························································································· 60
2.3 산업공정별 폐기물의 발생공정도 ························································································ 62
2.4 사업장폐기물처리상의 문제점 및 처리공정대책 ································································· 64
2.5 사업장폐기물의 자원화의 배경 및 필요성 ·········································································· 68
제3장 사업장폐기물의 발생경로 및 발생량 ························································· 81
3.1 사업장폐기물의 종류별 발생현황 ························································································ 82
3.2 사업장에 있어서 폐기물의 발생 ·························································································· 95
3.3 지정폐기물의 발생현황 ······································································································ 103
제4장 사업장폐기물의 처리 및 자원화 시스템의 계획 ···································· 115
4.1 폐기물처리 시스템계획 개론 ····························································································· 116
4.2 사업장폐기물의 배출원별 처리 시스템의 분류 ································································· 118
4.3 폐기물의 처리특성별 처리 시스템 선정 ············································································ 120
4.4 처리 Process의 선택 ·········································································································· 121
4.5 처리조작의 선택 ················································································································ 122
4.6 처리 process 의 조합방법 ································································································· 122
4.7 사업장폐기물처리프로세스의 기본공정 시스템 ································································· 129
제5장 중금속계폐기물의 처리 및 자원화 ························································· 141
5.1 중금속계 폐기물의 자원화기술 ·························································································· 142
5.2 이온교환수지법에 의한 중금속의 자원화기술 ··································································· 145
5.3 용매추출법에 의한 중금속의 상호분리 ·············································································· 152
5.4 중금속계 폐기물의 제품원료의 유효이용 ·········································································· 162
5.5 제련기술에 의한 금속의 자원화 ························································································ 166
5.6 합금환원법에 의한 니켈, 크롬, 철 계폐기물의 자원화 ····················································· 177
iv 자원순환공학
5.7 공 캔류의 재활용 ··············································································································· 179
5.8 폐니켈?카드늄전지의 자원화 ······························································································ 186
5.9 폐건전지로부터 기타 금속의 회수 ····················································································· 190
제6장 비중금속계 무기성 폐기물의 처리 및 자원화 ········································ 195
6.1 광재의 자원화기술 ············································································································· 196
6.2 주물사의 자원화 ················································································································ 204
6.3 연소재의 자원화 ················································································································ 210
6.4 무기성 오니의 자원화 ········································································································ 218
6.5 유리조각 및 도자기의 자원화 ···························································································· 221
6.6 건설폐재의 이용 ················································································································ 222
6.7 시멘트원료로서 무기성 폐기물의 이용 ·············································································· 224
제7장 생물유래 유기성 폐기물의 처리 및 자원화 ············································· 229
7.1 폐목재의 자원화 ·················································································································· 230
7.2 폐지의 자원화 ······················································································································ 240
7.3 고분자유기계폐기물의 자원화 ····························································································· 247
제8장 폐알카리 및 폐산의 자원화기술 ······················································································· 257
8.1 폐알카리의 자원화기술 ······································································································ 258
8.2 폐산의 처리 및 자원화 ······································································································ 270
8.3 열분해법에 의한 폐산의 처리 및 회수 ·············································································· 276
8.4 이온교환막에 의한 염산의 회수 ························································································ 281
제9장 Plastic 폐기물의 처리 및 자원화 ··························································· 299
9.1 Plastic 폐기물의 현황 ········································································································ 300
9.2 플라스틱폐기물의 전처리기술 ···························································································· 303
9.3 폐플라스틱의 자원화 ········································································································· 307
9.4 소각에 의한 플라스틱의 처리 및 폐열회수 ······································································· 321
9.5 분해성플라스틱 ·················································································································· 334
제10장 건설폐기물의 자원화 및 처리 ······························································ 339
10.1 건설폐기물의 처리 현상 및 문제점 ···············································································
340
10.2 건설폐기물의 분류, 조성 및 발생 ·················································································· 343
10.3 건설폐기물의 발생억제 및 분리해체 ·············································································· 353
10.4 건설폐기물의 처리 및 자원화 기술 ················································································· 359
제11장 폐유의 처리 및 자원화 ········································································· 383
11.1 폐유발생량 및 처리현황 ··································································································· 384
사업장폐기물의 처리 및 자원화 v
11.2 폐유의 종류, 유상물질의 종류 ························································································· 387
11.3 폐유 처리 및 자원화기술 ································································································· 391
제12장 슬러지의 처리 및 재자원화 ·································································· 413
12.1 슬러지의 처리 현황 및 프로세스 ····················································································· 414
12.2 슬러지의 처리·처분 공정 및 기술 ··················································································· 424
12.3 하수슬러지의 유효이용 ···································································································· 447
12.4 하수슬러지의 건설자재로서의 이용 ················································································· 463

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