의학 생리학의 피자극성被刺戟性. Irritability,A Physiological Analysis of the General Effect of Stimuli
- 저자Max Verworn 저
전자책 프로그램 수동설치 안내
아이폰, 아이패드, 안드로이드폰, 태블릿,
보유 1, 대출 0, 예약 0, 누적대출 1, 누적예약 0
책소개의학 생리학의 피자극성被刺戟性. The Book of Irritability,A Physiological Analysis of the General Effect of Stimuli in Living Substance. by Max Verworn
의학 생리학의 피자극성被刺戟性.
Irritability. A Physiological Analysis of the General Effect of Stimuli in Living Substance.
피자극성은 생명체에서 자극에 대한 일반적인 효과에서 생리학적인 분석이며, medical physiology의학 생리학에서 총론부분의 한분야이며 초기 의학 생리학 실험의 일부분임. .
즉, 자극과민성 刺戟過敏性. 약간의 자극에도 비정상적으로 반응하는 성질. 과민성, 흥분성興奮性 피자극성被刺戟性. 자극에 과민한 또한 반응하는 성질.
A PHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GENERAL EFFECT OF STIMULI IN LIVING SUBSTANCE
BY MAX VERWORN, M.D., PH.D.
WITH DIAGRAMS AND ILLUSTRATIONS
NEW HAVEN: YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS LONDON: HENRY FROWDE OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
COPYRIGHT, 1913 BY YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS
First Printed May, 1913
의학 생리학의 피자극성被刺戟性. The Book of Irritability,A Physiological Analysis of the General Effect of Stimuli in Living Substance. by Max Verworn
Contents: Introductory. Earliest period. Francis Glisson as founder of the doctrine of irritability. Albrecht von Haller. The vitalists. Bordeu and Barthez. John Brown’s system. Johannes Muller and the specific energy of living substance. Rudolf Virchow’s doctrine of the irritability of the cell. Discovery of the inhibitory effects of stimulation. Weber, Schiff, Goltz, Setschenow, Sherrington. Claude Bernard studies on narcosis. Tropisms. Ehrenberg, Engelmann, Pfeffer, Strassburger, Stahl. Semon’s speculations on mneme. 1
Contents: Principles of scientific knowledge and research. Origin and meaning of the conception of cause. Cause and condition. Criticism of the conception of cause. The conditional point of view. Conception of cause. The conditional point of view applied to the investigation of life. Conception of vital conditions. Definition of the conception of stimulation. 18
Contents: The quality of the stimulus. Positive and negative alterations of the factors which act as vital conditions. Extent of the alteration in vital conditions or intensity of the stimulus. Threshold stimuli, sub-threshold, submaximal, maximal and supermaximal intensities of stimulus. Relations between the intensity of stimulus and the amount of response. The Weber and Fechner law. All or none law. Time relations of the course of the stimulus. Form of individual stimulus. Absolute and relative rapidity in the course of the stimulus. Duration of the stimulus after reaching its highest point. Adaptation to persistent stimuli. Series of individual stimuli. Rhythmical stimuli. The Nernst law. 39
Contents: Various examples of the effects of stimulation. Metabolism of rest and metabolism of stimulation. Metabolic equilibrium, Disturbances of equilibrium by stimuli. Quantitative and qualitative alterations of the metabolism of rest under the influence of stimuli. Excitation and depression. Specific energy of living substance. Qualitative alterations of the specific metabolism and their relations to pathology. Functional and cytoplastic stimuli. Relations of the cytoplastic effects of stimuli to the functional. Hypertrophy of activity and atrophy of inactivity. Metabolic alterations during growth of the cell. Primary and secondary effects of stimulation. Scheme of effects of stimulation. 65
Contents: Indicators for the investigation of the process of excitation. Latent period. The question of the existence of assimilatory excitations. Dissimilatory excitations. Excitations of the partial components of functional metabolism. Production of energy in the chemical splitting up processes. Oxydative and anoxydative disintegration. Theory of oxydative disintegration. Dependence of irritability on oxygen. Experiments on unicellular organisms, nerve centers and nerve fibers. Restitution after disintegration by metabolic self-regulation. Organic reserve supplies of the cell. The question of a reserve supply of oxygen of the cell. Metabolic self-regulation as a form of the law of mass effect, and metabolic equilibrium as a condition of chemical equilibrium. Functional hypertrophy. 87
Contents: Only processes of excitation are conducted, not processes of depression. Conduction of excitation in its two extreme instances. Conduction in undifferentiated pseudopod protoplasm of rhizopoda. Conduction of excitation with decrement of intensity and rapidity. Conduction of excitation in the nerve. Rapidity of conduction. Conduction of excitation without decrement. Relation between irritability and conductivity. Conduction of excitation with decrement of the nerve after artificial depression of irritability by narcosis. Theory of the decrementless conduction of the normal nerve. Proof of the validity of the “all or none law” in the medullated nerve. Theory of the process of the conductivity of excitation. Theory of core model (Kernleiter). Electrochemical theory of conduction based on the properties of semi-permeable surfaces. 118
Contents: Conception of specific irritability. Alteration of specific irritability during and after excitation. Refractory period in various forms of living substance. Absolute and relative refractory period. Curve of irritability during refractory period. Dependence of the duration of the refractory period on the rapidity of the course of the metabolic processes in the living substance. Dependence on temperature. Dependence on supply of oxygen. Theory of refractory period. Refractory period as basis of fatigue. Fatigue as a form of asphyxiation. Alterations of irritability and the course of excitation in fatigue. Recovery from fatigue. The role played by oxygen in recovery. Fatigue as an expression of the prolongation of the refractory period conditioned by the relative want of oxygen. Fatigue of the nerve. 154
Contents: Examples of effects of interference of stimuli in unicellular organisms. Interference of galvanic and thermic stimuli in Paramecia. Interference of galvanic and thermic stimuli and narcotics. Interference of galvanic and mechanical stimuli. Interference of galvanotaxis and thigmotaxis in Paramecia and hypotin infusoria. Real or homotop interference, apparent or heterotop interference. The two effects of homotop interference of excitations: Summation and inhibition of excitations. Theory of the processes of inhibition. Hering-Gaskell Theory. Inhibition as an expression of the refractory period. Individual possibilities of interference of two stimuli. Interference of an excitating and a depressing stimulus. Interference of two depressing stimuli. Interference of two excitating stimuli. Analysis of the interference of two excitations. Interference of two single stimuli. Conditions upon which the result of interference is dependent. Heterobole and isobole living systems. Intensity of the two stimuli. Interval between the stimuli. Specific irritability and rapidity of reaction of the living system. Latent period. Interference of single stimuli in a series. General scheme of the development of the effect of interference. Summation and inhibition. Apparent increase of irritability. Conditions of summation. Tonic excitations. Conditions of inhibitions. Various types of inhibition. Interference of two series of stimuli. Relations in the nervous system. Peculiarities of the nerve fibers. Conversion of the nerve by relative fatigue from an isobolic into a heterobolic system. 189
Contents: Necessity of cellular physiological analysis of toxic depressions by pharmacology. Apparent variety of processes of depression. Depression of oxydative disintegration as the most extended principle in the processes of depression. Asphyxiation, fatigue, heat depression, as a consequence of restriction of oxydative disintegration. Narcosis. Theories of narcosis. The alteration of specific irritability and conductivity in narcosis. Depression of oxydative processes in narcosis. Asphyxiation of living substance when oxygen is present during narcosis. Persistence of anoxydative disintegration in narcosis. Increase of the same by stimuli. Depression by narcosis as a form of acute asphyxiation. Hypothesis on the mechanism of depression of oxygen exchange by narcotics. Possibility of combining the facts with the observations of Meyer and Overton. 235